"Haarlem (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦaːrlɛm]; predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland and is situated at the northern edge of the Randstad, one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe. Haarlem had a population of 159,556 in 2017.
Haarlem was granted city status or stadsrechten in 1245, although the first city walls were not built until 1270. The modern city encompasses the former municipality of Schoten as well as parts that previously belonged to Bloemendaal and Heemstede. Apart from the city, the municipality of Haarlem also includes the western part of the village of Spaarndam. Newer sections of Spaarndam lie within the neighbouring municipality of Haarlemmermeer." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haarlem
"With its ancient buildings, cobbled streets and winding waterways, the medieval city of Haarlem is one of the most photogenic destinations in the Netherlands. Easily reachable by train (just fifteen minutes from Amsterdam Central Station) Haarlem is often referred to as a scaled-down version of its more famous neighbour. But to think of it in such terms does a disservice to a city that beats with its own vibrant pulse and overflows with a rich history, epoch-spanning architecture and a thriving cultural scene all of its own." https://www.iamsterdam.com/en/plan-your-trip/day-trips/haarlem/haarlem-top-10
In 1658, Peter Stuyvesant, the Director-General of the Dutch colony of Nieuw Nederland (New Netherland), founded the settlement of Nieuw Haarlem in the northern part of Manhattan Island as an outpost of Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam) at the southern tip of the island. After the English capture of New Netherland in 1664, the new English colonial administration renamed both the colony and its principal city "New York," but left the name of Haarlem more or less unchanged. The spelling changed to Harlem in keeping with contemporary English usage, and the district grew (as part of the borough of Manhattan) into the vibrant centre of African American culture in New York City and the United States generally by the 20th century." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haarlem#Harlem,_Manhattan